That is why I added the exclamation point at the end. The stanzas 7 to 9 deal with them both, the controllers of earth and sky. Rig Veda, tr. This interpretation is more symbolic than my rather literal translation of the text, but it cannot be denied that Varuṇa is very often associated with rains. English-Home |  Sitemap |  About us |  Purpose |  Support, This page uses the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST). The electronic Rig-Veda PDF files downloadable below are those of the first edition 1998 using the typeface depicted above.. 2. Hence the translation "we come" and not "we go" (īmasi), as the particle "ā" there reverses the sense of the root "ī" (to go). and so on. ", "may (one) obtain", "(one) obtains", "(one) will obtain", "hopefully (one) will obtain", etc. The latter means both "divine law" (the one who keeps the universe working) and "settled order", such as the regular ceremony of performing the ritual of worship daily. “Agnimeele purohitam” is the first mantra of Rig Veda, the oldest among the four Vedas. क॒वी नो॑ मि॒त्रावरु॑णा तुविजा॒ता उ॑रु॒क्षया॑। दक्षं॑ दधाते अ॒पस॑म्॥९॥, Ṛṣirmadhucchandā vaiśvāmitraḥ    -    Chando gāyatrī    -    Devatā vāyuḥ 1-3 indravāyū 4-6 mitrāvaruṇau 7-9, Vāya̱vā yā̍hi darśate̱me somā̱ ara̍ṅkṛtāḥ| Teṣāṁ̍ pāhi śru̱dhī hava̍m||1|| In other words, the first Sūkta was revealed to him. Anyway, now non-scholar people can understand why I began teaching Classic or Postvedic Sanskrit in the first place on this website, hehe, which is, for example, devoid of written accents. First of all, I really appreciate that you have a crave to learn Veda and Upnishad. “Agnimeele purohitam” is the first mantra of Rig Veda, the oldest among the four Vedas. ", but the term "seer" is much more adequate, I think, because the ṛṣi-s are not really the authors of all these Vedic hymns, but the ones whom they were revealed. Chapter 6: The Chanting of Veda Mantras and the First Mantra of the Purusha Sukta. Hymn 1.1 is addressed to Agni, and his name is the first word of the Rigveda. The last Mantra of Ṛgveda (10-191-4) deals with equality among human beings – All the four vedas together have about 23,000 verses. Usually Anuvaka is not mentioned for the reference of a Mantra of the Rigveda. OK, enough of all these grammatical subtleties. and "kratu" (intelligence, wisdom, sacrifice, offering, etc.) The root "sac" has multiple meanings (to be associated, abide, accompany, adhere, help, etc.). Of course, I was talking about meters regulated by "syllables", but there is another category regulated by "mātrā-s"... oh my God, it would be better for you not to know anything about it, for now at least... Sanskrit meter may become another Sanskrit headache, which is not so serious as the "Verb" syndrome (See Verbs documents for more information about the "Verb" syndrome, hehe), but a headache anyway. Many mantras in Rigveda are hymns to the gods praying for benefits like health, wealth, and long life. 2 Worthy is Agni to be praised by living as by ancient seers. Vāyo̱ tava̍ prapṛñca̱tī dhenā̍ jigāti dā̱śuṣe̍| U̱rū̱cī soma̍pītaye||3|| Let you both come near (ā yātam upa) those two (libations) (tau)16  quickly (dravat)!||5||, Oh Vāyu (vāyo), as well as (ca) Indra (indraḥ), let you both come near (ā yātam upa) the place appointed (niṣkṛtam) by the offerer of the Soma (sunvataḥ)! This a clear example of a grammatical obstacle a translator may stumble upon if his knowledge of Vedic Sanskrit is not good enough, as most grammars do not explain these differences. स न॑: पि॒तेव॑ सू॒नवेऽग्ने॑ सूपाय॒नो भ॑व। सच॑स्वा नः स्व॒स्तये॑॥९॥, Ṛṣirmadhucchandā vaiśvāmitraḥ    -    Chando gāyatrī    -    Devatā agniḥ, Om̐ a̱gnimī̍ḻe pu̱rohi̍taṁ ya̱jñasya̍ de̱vamṛtvija̍m| Hotā̍raṁ ratna̱dhāta̍mam||1|| ", but in Ṛgveda it is usually associated with the adjective "dhī" (intelligence, wisdom, thought, understanding, prayer, etc.). Anyway, when they are joined together, and "dhī" is in Instrumental case, singular number (i.e. Anyway, as I said above, the term "sutānām" (of the libations de Soma --three or more--) may distract a translator and force him to make a mistake. Vāya̱vindra̍śca cetathaḥ su̱tānāṁ̍ vājinīvasū| Tāvā yā̍ta̱mupa̍ dra̱vat||5|| Listen (śrudhī) to (our) invocation (havam)5 !||1||, Oh god of the wind (vāyo), the invokers (jaritāraḥ) (or) knowers (vidaḥ) of the (proper) sacrificial day (ahar), who have extracted the Soma and offered a libation of it (to you) (sutasomāḥ)6 , address (jarante) you (tvām acchā)7  by means of recited verses of praise (ukthebhiḥ)8 !||2||, Oh god of the wind (vāyo), your (tava) speech (dhenā)9 , the instrument (you use) to come in contact (prapṛñcatī)10 , goes (jigāti) toward one who honors and serves the gods (dāśuṣe)11 ! वाय॒विन्द्र॑श्च सुन्व॒त आ या॑त॒मुप॑ निष्कृ॒तम्। म॒क्ष्वि त्था धि॒या न॑रा॥६॥ This is easily understood at first glance by any Sanskrit scholar examining the stanzas, but most students may experience confusion. by Ralph T.H. The Rig Veda outlines many spiritual disciplines and provides information about the practice of yoga, meditation, mantra, and Ayurveda. In turn, this verb is derived from the root "pṛc" (to mix, fill, give lavishly, increase, bring into contact, etc.). In fact, you might have to write an entire big volume only to describe what Indra means. "Tau" cannot be "those two (gods)" (Nominative case, masc., dual), because "ā yātam upa" is in 2nd Person dual, Parasmaipada, Imperative Mood, i.e. 11  "Upa... emasi" may also be translated "we come to", but I preferred the meaning "we come near " as "upa" denotes specially "nearness". 5  "Śrudhī" (listen!) your speech-- (may be) far-reaching (urūcī) (just) for the sake of drinking (pītaye) Soma (soma)12 !||3||, Oh Indra and Vāyu (indravāyū), come (ā gatam) with dainties (prayobhiḥ)13  near (upa) these two (ime) libations of Soma (sutau)! 16  "Tau" means "to those two" (i.e. Rig Veda or ‘Rigveda’ means praise/verse of knowledge. Mitra stands for the force that calls men to activity and sustains earth and sky. Today in the twenty-first century, the Rigveda remains one of the most important books for all humanity, providing not only glimpses of the origins of civilization but a cosmic vision that transcends all time, connecting humanity to the power of universal creation. Thus, if you join both meanings together, a better translation of "ṛc" would be: "a verse recited in praise (of a deity)". First Only Description of Yogi in Rig Veda, Kesin. For the first time in the history of the world the great vision of religion was proclaimed in the Purusha Sukta of the Veda, which can be regarded as the most magnificent vision bequeathed to us by the ancient masters. वाय॑ उ॒क्थेभि॑र्जरन्ते॒ त्वामच्छा॑ जरि॒तार॑:। सु॒तसो॑मा अह॒र्विद॑:॥२॥ Above and below are its spreading flames. . Granted, there are more rules governing over the use of enclitic particles such as "nas", but I am sure you will not want to know them for now, hehe... oh my God! Predating Müller's editio princeps of the text, Rosen was working from manuscripts brought back from India by Colebrooke. As a mere example, if you use the translation "water" for "ṛta" in "ṛtaspṛśā", the meaning would be "oh, both of you who touch water". Gayatri Mantra. 19  The term "dakṣa" has many other meanings, of course: vigor, energy, mental power, talent, disposition, etc. At present (December 2004), I have not taught you Perfect and Aorist Tenses in depth, but I promise that I will reduce the quantity of hard-boiled eggs you will have to swallow to... say... twenty, hehe. Infinitive, Imperative, etc.) "dhiyā"), the result is not "thus by thought" or anything like that. The main ones include: Indra, Agni, and Soma. He is as well considered the personification of Agni, the god of fire. 22  Since the words "ṛta" (divine law, settled order, truth, water, sacrifice, etc.) (both material and spiritual in the form of wisdom, Peace, faith etc.). Yoga, according to Patanjali, is the ‘Cessation of Modification of Chitta’ Yoga has, Chittavrutthi Nirodhithaha-Patanjali Yoga Sutra. Second to Seventh Mandalas are oldest parts of Rig-Veda but the shortest books. 12  This sentence affirms that Vāyu's speech does not go "only" toward one person who offers Soma to him at a particular moment, but toward anyone doing the same thing everywhere. Griffith, [1896], at sacred-texts.com. In turn, the latter (independent Svarita) may be subdivided into more subcategories... oh my God! 10  In short, any prosperity and welfare Agni will wish to give to one who honors and serves the gods, that wish of his comes true always. Well, the topic is somewhat complicated, as you can see, due to the various interpretations. (These two gods) accomplish or complete (sādhantā) (any) prayer (dhiyam) abounding (acīm) in clarified butter (ghṛta)20 ||7||, Oh Mitra (mitrā) (and) Varuṇa (varaṇau), who increase (vṛdhau) Truth (ṛtā) (and) are connected (spṛśā) with pious works of worship (ṛta), both of you, a long time ago, obtained (āśāthe)21  great (bṛhantam) intelligence and enlightenment (kratum) through the divine law and settled order (ṛteṇa)22 !||8||, Oh wise (kavī) Mitra (mitrā) (and) Varuṇa (varuṇā), of powerful nature (tuvi-jātā) (and) spacious abodes (uru-kṣayā), both of you render (dadhāte) our (nas) sacrificial act (apasam) strong (dakṣam)23 !||9||. अ॒ग्निः पूर्वे॑भि॒रृषि॑भि॒रीड्यो॒ नूत॑नैरु॒त। स दे॒वाँ एह व॑क्षति॥२॥ 2 Worthy is Agni to be praised by living as by ancient seers. In the human being he is the vital energy or Prāṇa. This gayathri manthram is first quoted in the Rigveda. In my opinion, a higher grammar should not be synonymous with an antididactical and boring one, such as those I have read so far. Well, the Svarita known as Kampa, "simply" (this is a joke, obviously) arises when an independent Svarita is immediately followed by another equally independent one or a Udātta accent. In any case, I have to give "one" translation of every stanza and generally I choose the most adequate one in my humble opinion, while I use these explanatory notes to add alternative translations or interpretations. In 1977, Wilson's edition was enlar… However, I could not find any connection between "prapṛñcatī" and "approving" yet. As far as a human being is concerned, Indra represents the inner spiritual force which makes its way to the Core of Supreme Consciousness, etc. 2  "Gāyatrī" is a meter consisting of 24 syllables "generally" arranged in a triplet of 8 syllables each. Note: The re-edition 2005 of "Rig Veda Mantra Samhita", ISBN 81-7994-015-2, was re-set using another typeface. Obviously, that said translator consults the dictionary and finds no noun like that. In this case, Agni, the god of fire, is the object of praise and solicitation during this ceremony or ritual of worship carried out by the priests. click on the number to quickly reach my explanation and click on the arrow icon to return to the exact position where you were reading. Let alone, Aorist Tense (indefinite past, which also stopped being used in Postvedic writings practically) and its seven varieties, another "delicious candy" surely getting in my way later on. Therefore, "sutasomāḥ" should be taken as a Bahuvrīhi compound (See Compounds section) in the sense of: "those who extract the Soma (i.e. 23  There is another valid translation here, by using the multiple meanings of the enclitic particle "nas", the conjugation "dadhāte" (2nd Person dual, Ātmanepada, Present Tense), which is derived from the root "dhā" (to make, render, bestow, place, support, etc.) He is also said to share the same chariot as Indra. Look: "ānaṁśa"... but there are these two too, "ānāśa" and "āśa". (got it? when Visarga is before "p" or "t"... be warned then). Each page of this is cross-linked with the Sanskrit text of the Rig Veda. I glorify the Self-effulgent God the Supreme Leader, the Eternal Support of the universe, the Illuminator of all noble activity, the only object of adoration in all seasons and the most Bounteous and the Greatest Bestower of splendid wealth. poṣameva divedive| The control and regulations of the mind and through it, The Consciousness is the goal of Yoga. In the translation, the Vedic accentuation is not relevant in most contexts (but in some contexts it is... keep this in mind), and the phrase: "ma̱kṣvi 1̱̍ tthā" is taken as "makṣvitthā" (makṣū + itthā). ), but this is not the case as the phrase reads: "tau ā yātam upa". Nonetheless, that rule is not always valid in Ṛgveda (e.g. and the noun "dakṣa". All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. Rāja̍ntamadhva̱rāṇāṁ̍ go̱pāmṛ̱tasya̱ dīdi̍vim| Vardha̍mānaṁ sve dame̍||8|| The word "sutānām" (of the libations of Soma) occurring previously, may make a translator confused, because "sutānām" is in plural (suggesting three or more, in Sanskrit), while the quantity of libations is "two". HYMN I. Agni. Oh heroes (narā), (come) soon (makṣū) (and) willingly (itthā dhiyā)17 !||6||, I invoke (huve)18  Mitra (mitram), whose strength of will (dakṣam)19  (is) pure (pūta), and (ca) Varuṇa (varuṇam), destroyer and devourer of enemies (riśādasam). 18  In Classic (Postvedic) Sanskrit, you would expect: "hvaye" (from the root "hve" -to invoke-) instead of "huve". "suta"), but "pressed, extracted", from the root "su" (to press, extract). The same thing is true to the rest of deities. In Ṛgveda, Udātta is unmarked, Anudātta is partially marked (i.e. clarified butter or ghṛta). Getting back to my explanation: the point is that "nas" may mean either "to us, upon us" or "for us" or "our, ours, of ours". Hence the compound "pūta-dakṣa" might also, at least theoretically, be translated as "pure-minded" by playing with the meanings. Besides, every cloud has a silver lining, inasmuch as it was the existence of those antididactical grammars I have what pushed me to publish a Sanskrit site on the Web and share this knowledge with you in a more didactical and funny way, I think. Related to that inference, they might have started the Vedas … Later at the request, of Edison Max Muller came on the stage and spoke in front of the, instrument. 2  Indra and Vāyu are generally associated with each other. However, it seems that was "unequally" arranged in a duet of 16 and 8 syllables, respectively. Again, it is obvious that Agni, taken as the usual fire in a sacrifice, grows or increases as the oblations are poured into it (e.g. Related to that inference, they might have started the Vedas … Thus, "aśnavat" might be translated as "let (oneself) obtain! If you got it, remember my previous statements in the future. 1 I Laud Agni, the chosen Priest, God, minister of sacrifice, The hotar, lavishest of wealth. 12  The word "dhī" means many things: prayer, thought, understanding, wisdom, etc. The first and 10 th Mandalas are the youngest and the longest books. He shall bring hitherward the Gods. 3  The devatā is the deity worshipped or praised or simply dealt with in a particular hymn. Mi̱traṁ hu̍ve pū̱tada̍kṣaṁ̱ varu̍ṇaṁ ca ri̱śāda̍sam| Dhiyaṁ̍ ghṛ̱tācīṁ̱ sādha̍ntā||7|| Still, Indra is most important in the hierarchy, at least in that one you find in Ṛgveda. 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