Faulting related to Laramide deformation has led to extensive fracturing and brecciation in Little Sheep Mountain anticline. One example of this is the El Dorado anticline in Kansas. When rocks are subjected to stresses that exceed their strength, they _____, usually by _____ or ___. Others accommodate displacement between continental blocks that slip horizontally past each other. Brittle deformation occurs when stress breaks the chemical bonds that hold a material together. Young mountain belts include the ____ ____, which runs along the western margin of the Americas from Cape Horn at the tip of South America to Alaska and includes the Andes: the Alpine-Himalaya chain, which extends along the margin of the Mediterranean, through Iran to northern India and into Indochina; and the mountainous terrains of the western Pacific, which include volcanic island arcs that comprise Japan, the Philippines, and Sumatra. The remnants of this volcanic arc and oceanic sediments are recognized today as the ____ rocks found across much of the western _____, especially in New York. This activity resulted in the piecemeal addition of crustal fragments to the entire Pacific margin of the continent --from Mexico's _____ Penisula to northern Alaska. Plunging anticline. Anticlines By contrast, the term terrain is used when describing the shape of the surface topography or "_____of the ____". This event also displaced and further deformed the shelf sediments and sedimentary rocks that had once flanked the eastern margin of North ____. This is an excellent view of the succession from the Triassic Gypsum Springs Formation (The white rim around the valley bottom) through the Permian Phosphoria Formation (The heavily fractured white limestone and dolostone of the hinge). The resulting chaotic accumulation of deformed and thrust-faulted sediments and scraps of ocean crust is called an ____ ____. Above the fault tip, the fluids circulated rapidly in the diffuse synfolding (and early folding) fracture network. It is important to realize that ridges are not necessarily associated with _____, nor are valleys a characteristic of ____. large transform faults accommodate relative displacements of up to several ___ ____. Rather, ridges and valleys result because of ____ ___ and ___. The Sheep Mountain Anticline is a fold generated during the Laramide mountain building event from 70 to 50 million years ago. are a type of reverse faults having dips less than 45 degrees. This is opposite order of a dome, such as the Black Hills, where the ____ rocks form the core. By contrast, Southeast Asia was assembled more recently, from the collision of several smaller crustal fragments. Hence, through magmatic ________, a comparatively dense basaltic magma can generate low-density, buoyant ______ magma composed of intermediate and/or granitic (felsic) composition. These folds appear to have resulted from the reactivation of ancient, steep-dipping reverse faults located in basement rocks beneath the plateau. Without compressional forces to support them, mountains gradually collapse under their own weight. Diagenetic characteristics and alteration associated with fluid migration within the fracture network were examined using strontium and stable isotopes in conjunction with petrography. Because what are typically horizontal rock layers are here found tipped up and eroded what we were able to do as we hiked up the mountain was go through successively older layers of rock: we were hiking back through time. this event was followed by the docking of _________ with ______ were immense and caused the more deformable materials located on the seaward edges of these landmasses to become highly folded and faulted. More than 100 of these relatively small crustal fragments, most of which are in the ____, are known to exist. In order to unravel the history of strain during folding, we carried out combined anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), anisotropy of P-wave velocity (APWV) and Fry strain analyses. Seismic evidence suggests that a portion of the ______ subcontinent was thrust beneath ___-a distance of perhaps 250 miles. If this occurred, the added crustal thickness would account for the lofty landscape of southern ____, which has an average elevation higher than Mount ____, the highest point in the contiguous United States. The Black Hills of western South Dakota is a large structural ____ generated by upwarping. This portion of a mountain belt often preserves slivers of oceanic lithosphere that were trapped between the colliding plates. This type of orogeny may also involve the _____ of continental fragments or island arcs that occupied the ocean basin that once separated the two continental blocks. Its NW–SE trend (Figure 1) is similar to that of many folds within the Rocky Mountains, although some others formed at acute angles to the regional compression [ Erslev, 1993 ]. The ___ formed as Africa and at least two smaller crustal fragments collided with Europe during the closing of the Tethys Sea. came into existence 100 million years ago. Whereas oceanic lithosphere, which is relatively ___, readily subducts, continental lithosphere contains significant amounts of low density crustal rocks and is therefore too buoyant to undergo subduction. The final _____, called the ______ Orogeny, occurred between 250 and 300 million years ago, when Africa collided with North America. Anticlines in the basin provide subsurface structural traps for oil and natural gas, several of which produce from the Mississippian Madison Formation, a world-class fractured carbonate reservoir. Changes that result from ____ ____ are recoverable; that is, like a rubber band, the rock will snap back to nearly its original size and shape. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. When an oceanic plate contains small seamounts, these structures are generally subducted along with the descending ______ slab. Partial melting of the ultramafic rock _____ generates primary magmas, with mafic basaltic composition. The monocline consists of bent sedimentary beds that were deformed by faulting in the bedrock below. Fracture sets parallel to and perpendicular to the Laramide shortening direction acted as primary fluid flow conduits within Little Sheep Mountain anticline and provided enhanced porosity and permeability in the subsurface reservoir rocks. Throughout history, portions of the Great Valley lay below sea level. These strong brittle rocks tend to fail by ____ when subjected to stresses that exceed their strength. Located within this developing ocean basin was an active volcanic arc that lay off the coast of ______ America and a _______ situated closer to Africa. In these settings, the strong sandstone layers are often fractured and the weak shale beds form undulating folds. Other mountain ranges that exhibit evidence of continental collisions include the ____ and the ____. Most batholiths consists of ____ igneous rocks that range in composition from granite to diorite. The Coast Ranges were uplifted only recently, as evidenced by the young, unconsolidated sediments that currently blanket portion of the _____. Geologically speaking, Sheep Mountain is an anticline which is a type of folded bedrock that has an arch-like shape with its oldest rocks at its core. The basic geologic features that form as a result of the forces generated by the interactions of tectonic plates are called ____ ____ or ____ _____. The slopes of the large normal faults associated with the Basin and Range Province decrease with depth and eventually join to form a nearly horizontal fault called a _____ fault. Many of the ranges that form the Rocky Mountains also took shape at this time. Little Sheep Mountain is a doubly-plunging asymmetric anticline in the northeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. This thick, cold slab of crustal material has been intact for more than 2 billion years and is mechanically strong as a _____. At it center lies a prominent 15 mile long ridge which corresponds to the double plunging anticline’s crest. Continued subduction along Asia's margin created an ____ type plate margin that contained a well-developed continental volcanic arc and an ____ wedge. Every body of rock, no matter how strong, has a point at which it will deform by ____ or_________. ____ forces associated with colliding plates generally create folds as well as thrust faults that thicken and shorten the crust to produce ____ topography. Colliding plates provide the tectonic forces that thicken and elevate, Weathering and erosion sculpt Earth's surface into a vast array of landforms, while up and down motions in the mantle can change the, concept of floating crust in gravitational balance is called, The process of establishing a new level of gravitational balance by loading or unloading is called. In the stable ___________ of the continents, rocks reveal a history of deformation which shows that these areas were once sites of former mountain belts. It is now known that many of the terranes that make up the North American Cordillera were scattered throughout the eastern _______, like the island arcs and oceanic plateaus currently distributed in the western Pacific. Geologists refer to the accreted crustal blocks as _____. An open syncline. The correlation between mountain building and the ____ of crustal fragments arose primarily from studies conducted in the North American Cordillera. In addition, the upward migration of buried salt deposits can produce salt domes like those surrounding Gulf of ____. In order for a new subduction zone to form, oceanic lithosphere must be old and dense enough to create a downward force capable of shearing the ____. The rapid rate of seafloor spreading in the Pacific basin is balanced by a high rate of. Partial ____ within the deepest and most-deformed region of the developing mountain belt produced magmas that intruded the overylying rocks. Much of the remaining penetration into Asia caused lateral displacement of large blocks of the Asian crust by a mechanism described as _____ ____. Mountain belts that were formed by the closure of major ocean basins include the: Continental collisions result in the development of mountain characterized by shortened and thickened crust, achieved through _______ and large- scale thrust faulting. buried, an environment where these rocks experienced elevated temperatures and pressures. However, large, thick units of oceanic crust, such as the Ontong Java Plateau, which is the size of ____, or an island arc composed of abundant light igneous rocks, render the oceanic lithosphere too buoyant to subduct. The result was the displacement of the material that was ____ earlier by as much as 155 miles toward the interior of North America. Sheep Mountain is a textbook example of an anticline fold. an example from Sheep Mountain Anticline, Wyoming N. Bellahsen, P. Fiore, D.D. Brecciation associated with Laramide deformation and late-stage diagenetic alteration was found to generally reduce the porosity of Madison reservoir rocks adjacent to breccia bodies by the infilling of fractures and occlusion of pores with late-stage calcite cement. Examples of mountainous belts produced by this type of compressional tectonics include the. Sheep Mountain Anticline An excellent example of an asymmetric doubly-plunging antcline. Still other may have been submerged oceanic ______ created by massive outpourings of ______ lavas associated with mantle plumes. Differential stress can also change the shape of a rock body, referred to as _____. A good example of topography that results when erosional forces attack folded sedimentary strata is found in the __, Valley and Ridge Province of the Appalachians. The Sheep Mountain anticline (Wyoming, USA) is a well-exposed asymmetric, basement-cored anticline that formed during the Laramide orogeny in the early Tertiary. 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